Journal of Education in Black Sea Region <p>The aim of the journal is to publish high-quality manuscripts that are of international (or at least regional) significance in terms of design and/or findings by encouraging the collaboration with international teams of researchers to create special issues on these topics. The journal strives to strengthen connections between research and practice, so enhancing professional development and improving practice within the field of education. Papers accepted for publication are double-blind refereed by international reviewers to ensure academic integrity.</p> <p>Journal of Education in Black Sea Region (JEBS) is a peer-reviewed international (regional) journal. Articles from / dealing with the Black Sea region countries are especially welcome, however, we cordially invite authors from all over the world.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Journal of Education in Black Sea Region. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course the Journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted material from other sources.</p> (Mehmet Sahiner) (Mehmet Sahiner) Wed, 25 Dec 2019 23:12:54 +0400 OJS 60 Teacher Effectiveness of Some Selected Secondary Schools’ Science, Technology, Engineering And Mathematics Subjects: Implication for Sustainable Development Using Science Education <p>This study examined the teacher effectiveness of the selected STEM subjects’ teachers of physics, chemistry and biology at the<br>senior secondary school level in Ijebu North local area of Ogun state, Nigeria. All the fifty teachers delivering the selected STEM<br>subjects were observed using and adapted Teachers’ Effectiveness Observation Guide (r=0.7). The data collected were analysed<br>using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that teacher effectiveness of the selected STEM subjects’ teachers<br>was relevant. The results also indicated that teacher effectiveness of chemistry teachers was the best among the three categories<br>of teachers. Furthermore, the findings revealed no significant gender difference in teacher effectiveness of the selected STEM<br>subjects’ teachers. The study discussed the implications of the findings for sustainable development using science education. It<br>recommended among other things that periodic training should be organized for teachers in all areas of teaching dimensions,<br>particularly in the use of activity-based instructional materials for science teaching.</p> Adewale Owodunni Saka, Peter Aboyami Onanuga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0400 Eradicating Poor Achievement in Basic Science and Technology through Learning Activity Package: How Do Students Behave in Nigeria? <p>This study was designed to determine the effects of Learning Activity Package (LAP) teaching method on students’ achievement in basic science and technology with special consideration to the moderating effect of learning styles. A pre-test - post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study for data collection and analysis. The sample for the study comprised sixty-nine (69) students from two (2) co-educational junior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode local government area of Ogun state, Nigeria. Basic science and technology achievement test (BSAT) and learning styles self-assessment questionnaire were used as instruments in collecting data for the study. Data collected were analysed using ANCOVA and MCA in order to determine the magnitude of students’ post-test achievement scores in basic science and technology. Findings of the study showed a significant main effect of teaching strategy on students’ academic achievement in basic science and technology (F (1, 57) = 8.362, P &lt; 0.05). However, no significant main effect of learning styles on students’ academic achievement in Basic Science and Technology (F (1, 57) = 0.070, P &gt; 0.05) was revealed, neither any significant interaction effects of teaching strategies were found. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Learning Activity Package (LAP) teaching method should be incorporated into the teaching of basic science and technology at the junior secondary school level. Furthermore, Learning Activity Package should be particularly introduced into system approach to instruction in basic science and technology at all levels of teacher education.</p> Moses Olanrewaju Afuwape, Augustine Lanre Olugbuyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 12:33:36 +0400 Design-Based Research: Definition, Characteristics, Application and Challenges <p>In recent years medical education has developed dramatically, but lecturers often cite the existence of a gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. In the first decade of the present century, new research methodology named “design-based research (DBR)” was developed, which most experts and journals refer to as a fundamental way to make changes in the quality and applicability of studies and educational research as well as to enhance and improve the practice of instruction. The aim of the present study was introducing design-based research and its concepts, features, applications, and challenges. A narrative review was conducted in 2018. For this purpose, authorized English academic database including Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, international database and library in medical research filed with keywords including “design-based research, definition of DBR, DBR applications, medical education, and DBR challenges” without date limitation until 2018.11.21 were screened. Overall, 68 articles were selected and after careful reading, 21 article with related subjects were selected for material extraction. The conclusion was made that DBR that combines empirical research with design-based theories could be considered as an effective method for understanding quality, time and the cause of the phenomenon of educational innovation in practice. Usually DBR is formed by initial evaluation of a problem that occurs in a particular context, and this assessment continues throughout design and implementation. One of the characteristics of DBR is the guiding team, which includes researchers, professionals, designers, managers, teachers, trainers and others whose expertise and knowledge may in some way help. The application of DBR in web-based training programs is quite evident. The probability of non-returns in short-term projects is one of the main challenges of DBR. Medical education has developed dramatically in recent years, but it has made little progress in promoting innovative research methodologies. DBR can be used as a bridge between theories and practice and provide the basis for close communication between researchers, designers, and participants. By applying sophisticated methods and multiple sources of information, the success rate of an intervention in a particular environment is assessed, which ultimately leads to improved theories.</p> Hamed Vaezi, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Reyhaneh Golbaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 12:48:27 +0400 Creation of Adaptive LMS Systems in Postgraduate Education <p>The article considers the development of the market for postgraduate education in the context of requirements of Industry 4.0. The composition of the main providers of the educational services market has been determined. Among them are groups of universities, consulting and educational centres and business schools. The most significant for retraining of personnel are traditional universities and corporate training centres. They allow to effectively achieving students the required level of competence through a highly specialized training program. Universities also build a curriculum based on a competence-oriented approach. However, in fact, the actual needs of business in qualifying personnel are insufficiently taken into consideration in state education standards, which leads to the labour market imbalance. For adapting the existing training system to the new conditions a flexible LMS model has been proposed. It is based on the interaction of business, training centers and the labor market (student). Filling the LMS in such an ‘ecosystem’ occurs in accordance with the needs of enterprises in the field of qualification of the necessary personnel. As a result, the university or training center provides the necessary tools in the modular LMS, taking into account the prospects for the development of markets in the Industry 4.0. The student sets up the LMS for his individual needs and obtains precisely those skills and competencies that will enable him to become a competitive employee. Therefore, the company receives qualified personnel with a set of necessary competencies. Such an ‘ecosystem’ allows a flexible adaptation of the content of the educational process to the needs of all participants in the training. Using the proposed approach will ensure sustainable competitiveness of companies by providing the necessary personnel, students - to get the most popular skills and high qualifications, and training centers - to ensure high quality and demand for their educational services.</p> Hanna Sokhatska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 12:56:41 +0400 The Process of Learning Revisited <p>The phenomenon of learning can be looked at from different perspectives. Besides its general everyday understanding, educational studies involve additional perspectives, such as behavioural, cognitivist, constructivist and possibly even humanistic approaches. Looking at learning from a pedagogical point of view rarely happens. This is all the more remarkable, as learning is surely a pre-condition of any pedagogical effort. The so-called “classical” learning theories are genuinely “foreign,” as they are imports from other sciences, notably psychology. The learning aspect represented here results out of learning itself and focuses on the logical dimensions of this phenomenon. An attempt is made to track down the phenomenon of pedagogic learning with the aim of extending the diversity of perspectives to enable learning to be scientifically regarded.</p> Jan Boehm ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 13:06:29 +0400 Interest of Teaching Programming for Primary Preservice Teachers <p>In the teachers’ training schools of Reunion Island and Mayotte, we have been training primary pre-service teachers in programming for the past three years. Most trainees have not learned programming before during their school and university curriculum. As a result, this subject is new to them and they find themselves in the situation of their own pupils. This is why we asked them, during their learning, to produce a “feelings” notebook in which they explain their successes, their failures and what it brings to them for understanding their own pupils. We held two types of studies of these documents: quantitative and qualitative. The analysis shows that if on the whole, the group of trainees have globally identified the key aspects of a learning situation, it is not the case for each trainee.</p> Jean Simon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 13:14:43 +0400 Using Collaborative Learning Strategies to Improve Creativity in EFL Writing: Attitudes and Actual Use <p>This qualitative study aims at exploring the collaborative learning strategies adopted by EFL teachers. The study also investigates the actual use of these strategies among the participants. Ten EFL teachers have been chosen based on the convenience sampling. To answer the research questions, the present study has made use of two instruments, namely interviews and observations.&nbsp; The interview results revealed that the participating teachers expressed their opinions on how they used collaborative learning strategy for promoting their students’ creativity in EFL writing. Classroom observations revealed that all the teachers who claimed to employ this strategy used a combined set of collaborative teaching activities. Additional research should be conducted and results should be interpreted and spread in the field for effective professional development.</p> Luqman M Rababah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 13:25:41 +0400 Teachers’ Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Tools into Writing Classes: A Qualitative Study <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Segoe UI',sans-serif;">Integration of ICT is invaluable in writing classes as it affects the writing abilities of students positively and improves their EFL writing. This study has made use of qualitative design. Ten EFL teachers have been chosen based on the convenience sample to answer the research questions. Using the observation tool, this study has been carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2018/2019. The participants were all from private secondary school stages in Irbid, Jordan where the ICT infrastructure is available in the classrooms. The observations revealed that the observed teachers integrate various media and technologies in their instruction in classrooms. Further studies are recommended to compare between public and private schools in terms of the integration of ICT tools. </span></p> Luqman M Rababah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 13:28:22 +0400 The Problem of Teaching of English Pronominal Pronouns in Genderless Society as Applied Linguistic Domain <p>The paper demonstrates one of the most recent problems in research of grammatical and natural genders in language. The targets of the article are to research gender representations in English from the perspectives of speakers in genderless society and the ways EFL professionals identify the existence of gender-related problems of teaching and learning of English pronominal usage in EFL settings. Literature review discusses how the field of language and gender is becoming re-conceptualized under the influence of theory of language of signs in society construction. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the generic pronoun and <em>he/man</em> approach have been used to perpetuate negative attitudes towards women, exclude them or relegate them from stereotypical roles. The objectives of this paper are to identify the use of gender-insensitive English language use and to suggest ways of making the gender-exclusive language a gender-inclusive one. In order to figure out the awareness and convention of generic pronouns among Georgian speakers of English, a questionnaire was conducted and distributed among EFL professionals working at higher educational institutions in Tbilisi, Georgia.</p> <p>According to the research findings, genderless languages are sexist to a specific degree and representatives of genderless languages might apply biased forms of discourse.</p> Mariam Akopian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 22:13:31 +0400 Impact Assessment of Perceived Curriculum Factors on Nigerian Students’ Behaviour in Basic Science and Technology <p>The National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014) encourages teachers of basic science and technology to teach students for inculcation of the type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society; the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. This study investigated the perceived influence of curriculum factors on Nigerian students’ behaviour in basic science and technology. The study made use of survey design. Its population comprised of 50 basic science and technology teachers in public and private junior secondary schools in the selected local government area in Ogbomoso educational zone of Oyo state. A self-developed questionnaire on perceived curriculum factors in order to assess students’ behaviour in basic science and technology was applied for data collection.</p> <p>The instrument validated by Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient method was employed to measure the reliability of the instrument. One research question and one null hypothesis guided the study. The results were analyzed using frequency count, mean and simple percentage, while T-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05level of significance. The findings of the study revealed no significant difference in basic science and technology constraints in teaching and learning at both public and private schools in Oyo state of Nigeria. The study, however, concluded that basic science and technology curriculum should be moderately accessible and necessary instructional facilities should be provided to qualified teachers to foster effective teaching and learning.</p> Moses Olanrewaju Afuwape, Funmilayo Adeola Adeyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0400 Community Participation In Education: A Case Study Of Taungzalat School In Kalay, Myanmar <p>This study aimed to investigate the types of community participation in Taungzalat Primary School in Kalay, Myanmar, to provide information in order to develop guidelines, and to enhance community participation in school. A mixed- methods research was employed in this study. Quantitative data were collected from 245 community members using a multiple-response questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with 19 participants. The data were analysed using Basic Statistics and content analysis and were integrated through triangulation. The results revealed that parents and community members differently involved in children’s learning and school development through all the six types of involvement by Epstein, but their participation was more directly related to student learning improvement than to school development. Community leaders, businesspersons and influential people in the community were involved in school development through PTA, representing the community, in the areas of decision-making, fundraising and school maintenance. Apart from teaching, teachers had roles of facilitating, communicating, networking and mobilizing for school development and students’ success. Research showed that the most common form of participation is resource contribution for school development. Therefore, the research suggests that all stakeholders focus on student learning improvement and on resource contribution for school development.</p> Ngun Neh Aung, Niwet Arunberkfa, Mahubul Hague, Nat Luxchaigul, Kumarashwaran Vadevelu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 22:35:36 +0400 Instructional Needs Assessment of Physics Teachers in the Teaching of Physics and Physics Practical in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the perceived instructional needs of physics teachers in the teaching of physics in secondary schools in Ogun-state, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey type of research. The sample was made up of eighty (80) physics teachers randomly drawn from forty-three (43) public Senior Secondary Schools in Abeokuta North, Abeokuta South and Ado Odo Ota Local Government areas of Ogun State. Data were collected by means of an Instructional Needs Inventory which consisted of 20 items on a 4–point Likert scale to which the teachers were required to indicate the extent of their instructional needs in Physics: “No help needed”, “Little Help Needed”, “Moderate Help needed” and “Much Help Needed”. The inventory was pretested on a pilot sample of 30 Physics teachers in Ijebu North and Ijebu-Ode Local Government areas of Ogun State. The Cronbach coefficient alpha value was found to be 0.88. One research question was posed and three hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that teachers need more help in developing questions that demand higher-order thinking skills; harnessing students’ existing ideas and conceptions; encouraging students participation in classroom lessons; connecting science concepts to real life examples; conceptual understanding of physics concepts; adapting teaching methods to meet individual students’ needs; linking students’ ideas, values and beliefs to their classroom experiences; engaging students in problem-solving activities; creating innovative ideas that can foster learning; improvising instructional materials; helping students to ask questions and discuss their learning experiences; presenting science experiences&nbsp; as enjoyable, interesting and relevant; helping students to plan and carry out investigation in the laboratory; helping students to learn by discovery and teaching science process skills. However, the research revealed that teachers need little help in measuring students’ conceptual understanding, helping students to interact actively with learning materials, using technology to enhance classroom experiences, assisting students to formulate their own questions, evaluating students’ learning and helping students to connect practical with underlying theoretical concepts. The results also revealed that the instructional needs of physics teachers were not significantly sensitive to gender differences, experiences and professionalism of teachers.</p> Oludipe Bimbola Dupev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 22:44:02 +0400 Use of Demo Kits as Strategy for Enhancing Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Computer Studies in Ogun State, Nigeria <p>Demo kits are experimental devices that promote physical observation of the concepts being discussed by the teachers. They are used to compensate the impossibility of demonstrating the objects due to their size or lack of their availability. This study examined the use of demo kits as strategy for enhancing senior secondary school students’ achievement in computer studies in Nigeria. The study adopted pre-test and post-test comparison group quasi-experimental research design using 2 x 2 factorial matrix. The population for the study was made up of all senior secondary (SS 2) students in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Ogun State. The sample for the study was drawn from two public senior secondary schools that met the selection criteria using intact classes. The schools were randomly assigned into experimental or comparison groups. The gathered data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings of the study revealed a significant main effect of the strategy that the students exposed to the use of demo kits performed significantly better than those in the comparison group which learnt using the conventional method of teaching. The results also indicated no significant gender difference in students’ performance in computer studies after the exposure to the use of demo kits. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers adopt the&nbsp; use of demo kits to teach computer studies&nbsp; when computer systems are not available for use instead of insisting on the teaching of the subject in well-equipped computer laboratories.</p> Adewale Owodunni Saka, Peter Abayomi Onanuga, Adetayo Adekunle Adebanjo, Yusuf Adesina Olanrewaju ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 22:58:18 +0400 The Emergence of Teacher Leadership in TESOL: An Exploratory Study of English Language Teachers as Teacher Leaders in the Saudi EFL Context <p>As part of a larger qualitative case study, this article explores the notion of teacher leadership in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context and a higher educational institution in Saudi Arabia. Twelve EFL teacher leaders were interviewed to understand their perceptions of teacher leadership practices in the EFL context. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and opened-ended questionnaires, and analysed using NVivo10. Data analysis led to 18 main categories and four overarching themes; however, four major categories and one key theme are part of this article that represent the EFL teacher-leaders’ perceptions of their leadership practices and roles at the English Language Institute (ELI). The findings reveal that teacher leadership is a novel concept at the ELI and teacher leaders operate in hierarchical leadership structures. However, their wide range of leadership roles, both instructional and operational match with the three historical waves of teacher leadership (Silva, Gimbert &amp; Nolan, 2000) in the US context. The impact of hierarchical structures on teacher leadership practices is evidently found as EFL teacher leaders encounter various difficulties, such as heavy administrative workload and lack of autonomy. Nevertheless, their shared leadership practices within the groups help them deal with these challenges.</p> Sayyed Rashid Ali Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0400