Journal of Education in Black Sea Region International Black Sea University en-US Journal of Education in Black Sea Region 2346-8246 <p>It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Journal of Education in Black Sea Region. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course the Journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted material from other sources.</p> Perceived Imperative Influence of Entrepreneurial Education on Human Security <p>Human security safeguards the vital core of all human lives from critical pervasive threats, in a way that is consistent with long-term human fulfillment despite the increased level of unemployment and insecurity in the country. Entrepreneurial education as a tool promotes skills that enable individual to be self-employed and self-reliant which influences the vital core of human lives such as food, economy and social stability. This study was carried out to examine the perceived imperative influence of entrepreneurial education on human security. A descriptive survey research design of the ex-post facto type utilizing a self-structured Likert type questionnaire entitled Questionnaire on Entrepreneurial Education and Human Security (QEEHS) with a reliability index of 0.75 was used to elicit appropriate response from the study population. A stratified random sampling technique was used to group the research location into five groups while four hundred (400) respondents were selected randomly from each group to make two thousand (2000) respondents as sample size. The data obtained were analyzed using the inferential statistics of multiple regression at 0.05 alpha level while the two negative hypotheses formulated were rejected. This revealed that entrepreneurial education imperative index (food, economic and social stability) are significant factors perceived to influence human security. It was recommended amongst others that government should have more locations and centers for skill acquisition to complement school-based entrepreneurial education. Individual and voluntary organization should complement government effort in this line to further help masses to be self-employed.</p> Emmanuel Adenuga Tola Oduyale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 3 9 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.150 School Leaders’ Practice of the Ethics of Educational Leadership to Make Decisions <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study aimed to investigate the extent to which school leaders practice the ethics of educational leadership to make decisions. A mixed-methods research design was used in this study. The quantitative data of this study were obtained from the participation of 260 teachers, and the qualitative data of this study were collected from nine school leaders. The questionnaire and the semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The study was conducted during the school year of 2017-2018. The study found that the overall extent to which school leaders practice the ethics of educational leadership to make decisions was classified as “always occurs". The findings showed that there were statistically significant differences between participants with different gender and school levels on the overall and all dimensions of the extent to which school leaders practice the ethics of educational leadership to make decisions, while there were not statistically significant differences between the groups of the participants with different teaching experience. The qualitative findings provided some common factors that influence school leaders’ practice to making ethical decisions. These factors were explained based on two concepts including management knowledge and leadership skills as well as the context of school's culture.</p> Mohammed Assiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 10 34 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.151 Student Preferences for M-Learning in Higher Education Institutions <p>It is inevitable to use different high-tech devices, particularly smart phones, in today’s rapid life. As a result, educators who work in this sector try to take advantage of developing technology in order to implement the teaching and learning process. Nevertheless, applying mobile learning to educational institutions requires special studies in order to adapt and implement the materials. Due to this reason, it is necessity to make a much more decent research on the acceptance of m-learning by students in terms of setting up m-learning systems in universities.&nbsp;The main goal of this research is to find out the students’ acceptance of mobile learning in Northern Iraq. The questionnaires were used to guide the educators to comprehend the research aim unambiguously and clearly. This study involves three primary research questions that propose to solve with the analysis of the findings, which are gathered by conducting questionnaires: How do university students accept mobile learning through devices inside and outside of the class? What is their level of mobile usage as a learning tool? And whether the students are ready to adapt mobile-assisted language learning. As a result of the research more than half of the students has revealed a positive attitude to use mobile devices in the process of learning. And most of them agree that mobile devices could be used as a learning tool. According to the last section of the questionnaire, students are ready to adopt mobile learning.</p> Mustafa Azmi Bingol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 35 43 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.152 Supplementary Education <p>Private tutoring is an attendant phenomenon of school education, in which every third student in Austria is participating. However, social inequality in the education system is deepened not only through paid tuition, but also through additional educational opportunities. The article argues for an extended access to extracurricular educational opportunities in order to reveal social disparity.</p> Jan Boehm ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 45 52 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.153 The Development of and the Effect of Electronic Speaking Portfolios on Learners’ Academic Performance in English as a Foreign Language Classes in Primary School <p>Technologies enhance interactivity amongst students and educators. It can be utilized as a tool for offering feedback or following learners’ progress. Another benefit of implementing educational technologies may comprise group or peer work. While dealing with implementing different technologies educators are supposed to take into consideration user-friendliness, user interface, speed, support and training. Although software programs and technology devices are not always easy to use. While applying educational technologies, teacher is supposed to make sure that it is assessable for students in the class. However, the issue of security and privacy should be taken into consideration while using technology in the class. Portfolios can be utilized for different purposes but the most important reasons are to demonstrate knowledge, present and reflect upon learners’ works.</p> Sophio Cheishvili ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 53 66 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.154 Assessment of Health Education in Formal Education from the Second Constitutionalist Period to Republican Period (1908 – 1938) <p>This study analyses the assessment of health education course in formal education from the Second Constitutionalist Period to Early Republican Period in Turkey. The research was conducted qualitatively, with descriptive approach, complying with the stages of document review. In the findings part, analysis of health education courses both in the Second Constitutionalist Period, called Hıfzıssıhha (Protective Health) courses during that period, and in the Republican Period was presented. The findings part also covers the reasons for having health education courses in schools, the content of these courses and in which periods and for which grades these courses were taught. In conclusion, having had health education courses in formal education organizations during the mentioned periods indicates that the importance of such courses in terms of individual and public hygiene was clearly understood.&nbsp;</p> Gönül Türkan Demir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 67 79 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.155 A Glance after a Century: How the Subject of Cubes were Taught in Geometry Classes at Secondary Schools <p>This descriptive study was undertaken with the survey model and aimed to present the textual content of geometry classes in 1919 including the examples of application. Document review method was used in the history of education study. The text body under investigation in teaching the subject of cubes in geometry classes was presented in the following format: preparatory stage, reviewing prior lessons, presenting new concepts, associating these new concepts with daily life and student practices. This study which focused on the teaching practices during the historical development process of geometry instruction is believed to contribute to the work of educators in this domain.</p> Gönül Türkan Demir Keziban Orbay Emine Altunay Şam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 80 92 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.156 Factors that Influence University Students’ Program Choices: The Case of IBSU, Tbilisi, Georgia <p>Certain decisions made by teenagers as they plan their careers can be hard to change or compensate for later. Wrong choices may lead to the waste of time and money as well. The aim of this piece of research is to find out the factors that influence the individual’s choice of major and university, which is an important step in the educational process by which they orient their future. It is essential for universities to know what students are influenced by because the information is useful in determining where the prospective students can be found and improving their overall standards. The sample population was 316 second-, third- and fourth-year students studying at the International Black Sea University (IBSU) in Georgia. The study employed a mixed methodology, which included qualitative and quantitative research methods. The data were collected through a survey and then analyzed with SPSS. In this research, Georgian teenagers prioritized their personal characteristics and ideas when they made decisions. It has also been found out that outgoing students are especially good at making the right decisions and thus do not consider changing their major or university. Teachers and the community have been found ineffective in the preference for the major, yet they ask for family advice.</p> Mehmet Emin KORTAK ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 93 107 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.157 Discriminatory and Racist Discourse in American TV Channels: The Image of Arab Immigrants <p>The present study examines critically the discursive representation of Arab immigrants in selected American news channels. To achieve the aim of this study, twenty news subtitles have been exacted from ABC and NBC channels. The selected news subtitles have been analyzed within van Dijk’s (2000) critical discourse analysis framework. Ten discourse categories have been examined to uncover the image of Arab immigrants in the American news channels. The image of Arab immigrants has been examined in terms of five ideological assumptions including <em>"us vs. them", "ingroup vs. outgroup", "victims vs. agents", "positive self-presentation vs. negative other-presentation", </em>and<em> "threat vs. non-threat".</em> Analysis of data reveals that Arab immigrants are portrayed negatively in the American channels under investigation and the televised discourse is greatly loaded with racist ideologies and perceptions towards Arab immigrants reflecting the standpoint of their owners. Finally, a number of conclusions and implications are presented.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nassier A. G. Al-Zubaidi Aya F. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 108 124 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.158 Motivating Students: A Case Study of a Student English-Speaking Scientific Research Club in Ukraine <p>The present paper seeks to shed light on creating collaborative learning environment for students’ critical thinking development in order to conduct scientific research. It represents a preliminary investigation of the students’ perceptions and experience of doing research. A series of interviews with students and expert teachers’ observations at a scientific research club sessions during two semesters revealed encouraging as well as frustrating factors impacting effectiveness of doing research. Analysis of motivational techniques applied at the club sessions allowed to suggest implications for teachers to involve students in conducting research work. Further investigation is needed to cover a larger scope of scientific and discussion clubs to collect more data on effective educational techniques in order to develop a proper methodology for fostering students’ critical thinking and motivation to study.</p> Natalia Hromova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 125 134 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.159 The Theory and Practice of Free Education in Nigeria: A Philosophical Critique <p>This paper attempts to locate the genesis of free education in Nigeria and to trace its development. Besides, a philosophical critique of the theory and practice of free education in the country is also attempted with the facts and fallacies highlighted. The paper is a descriptive study and applies philosophical analysis. In the concluding part, it is suggested among other things that government at all levels in Nigeria should state more clearly their stance on free education,&nbsp; publicize this, together with&nbsp; the most important aspects of the policy statements on free education so that the citizenry can know the limit of their expectation from the government.</p> Olatunji, M. Olalekan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 135 145 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.160 Implementing CLIL techniques to History Classes: Action Research <p>The given action research is aimed at investigating the impact the implementation of CLIL techniques may have on understanding and comprehension of the content in the teaching/learning environment where English is used as a medium of education. The research was conducted in Cambridge department of one of the private schools in Baku, Azerbaijan with two groups of 11-12-year-old learners. CLIL methodology was utilized in History of Azerbaijan classes to check whether the approach can facilitate the understanding of the content matter for the students who are proficient English users. The distinctive feature of this action research is that it allows for viewing CLIL approach from a perspective opposite to the common perspective where the focus is shifted from learning the language through content to learning content through CLIL tools and techniques.</p> Rena Alasgarova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 146 154 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.161 Probing Students’ Levels of Geometric Thinking in Geometry and Their Enacted Example Space Function <p>The study explored the pre-service secondary Mathematics teachers’ levels of geometric thinking in geometry and their enacted example space function while they were exposed to van Hiele model instruction. The findings of the study reveal that most of the students were functioning at the recognition level in plane geometry and the highest geometric thinking level manifested prior to their exposure to van Hiele model is the informal deduction level. The evidences based on the study show that students’ example space function from various phases of instruction does not depend on their levels of geometric thinking that they had in plane geometry. Students with various levels of geometric thinking were able to generate quality examples across phases of instruction. Evidences likewise support the claim that van Hiele model assists students’ development of their example space function. Prior to the instruction misconception on properties of prism was evident among students. After the instruction, the breadth and the depth of understanding in relation to properties of prism was evident based on the quality of examples they provided. The most dominant geometric thinking level after students’ exposure to the van Hiele model instruction is also the recognition level.</p> Robin B. Dimla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 155 163 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.162 The Effect of Three Instructional Elements on Achievement in Computer-Based Mathematics Instruction of Senior Secondary School Students in Nigeria <p>This study investigated the effect of three instructional elements on achievement in computer-based mathematics instruction. The subjects were senior secondary school students who used four versions of computer-based instruction developed on compact disc to learn about the volume of solid shapes. The four versions of the programme were (1) a full version that had the three instructional elements (2) a version without objectives (3) a version without practice (4) a version without examples. The results indicated that the full package, which included objectives, practice and examples, had a significant effect on students’ achievement in the computer-based mathematics instruction. Furthermore, of the three elements, practice, had the most effect on the learners’ achievement. Implications of the findings on development of computer-based instructions are also discussed.</p> Tayo Omoniyi Gisanrin Gbenga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-09 2018-12-09 4 1 164 172 10.31578/jebs.v4i1.163