Journal of Education in Black Sea Region <p>The aim of the journal is to publish high-quality manuscripts that are of international (or at least regional) significance in terms of design and/or findings by encouraging the collaboration with international teams of researchers to create special issues on these topics. The journal strives to strengthen connections between research and practice, so enhancing professional development and improving practice within the field of education. Papers accepted for publication are double-blind refereed by international reviewers to ensure academic integrity.</p> <p>Journal of Education in Black Sea Region (JEBS) is a peer-reviewed international (regional) journal. Articles from / dealing with the Black Sea region countries are especially welcome, however, we cordially invite authors from all over the world.&nbsp;</p> International Black Sea University en-US Journal of Education in Black Sea Region 2346-8246 <p>It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Journal of Education in Black Sea Region. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course the Journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted material from other sources.</p> The Degree of Readiness to Total Distance Learning in the Face of COVID-19 - Teachers’ View (Case of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Nigeria, UK and Ukraine) <p>By distance learning we understand an educational situation in which a teacher and his/her students are not placed in one physical environment. Distance learning was first applied in the 19<sup>th</sup> century and has undergone a long way of technological improvement. It has become indispensable in the time of global pandemic. It is characterized by both advantages and challenges, and, correspondingly, in normal situations is used by adults for additional education or at any level /age in combination with traditional face-to-face education. The goal of this paper is to assess how ready we turned out to be to involuntary, caused by extreme situation of coronavirus, switching over to distance learning. The article presents results obtained from six countries – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Nigeria, UK, and Ukraine - as well as some views of educators from several other countries. Although the samples were not representative by number of the research populations, they tried to take into consideration the strata involved (school/university teachers, younger than 30, 31-50, older than 50), in order to be trustworthy. The conclusion made is that the trend is that we (at least, in many countries, or many of us) are still rather far from ready to carry out so often declared and advertised distance learning with optimal efficiency and much work is needed to be able to switch to high-quality distance education.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Natela Doghonadze Aydin Aliyev Huda Halawachy Ludmila Knodel Adebayo Samuel Adedoyin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 2 41 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.197 Matching The Students’ Learning Preferences With Teacher’s Teaching Methods: The Case Of International EFL Students In Malaysia <p>Due to the paramount significance of English as a lingua franca, TESOL has attracted the attention of researchers globally which necessitates the suitable usage of the best methods for achieving the learners’ goals. This study examined the students’ learning preferences and their teachers’ methods and strategies used in specific classrooms. The sample of the study was 20 international EFL male and female learners and one English professor from the National University of Malaysia. The data were elicited from the samples using three instruments: an adapted from Oxford (1990) questionnaire, classroom observation and semi-structured interviews.&nbsp; The findings revealed that the teacher’s techniques to some extent support the students’ tendencies and styles toward learning the English language.&nbsp; It was shown that students are strongly motivated and have the ability to use all the possible strategies during their learning process. Moreover, the teacher confirmed that she supports the students’ self-confidence despite the existence of some barriers between the students and their teacher. It is recommended that teachers pay more attention to their students’ style preferences during the learning process.&nbsp;</p> Bilal Al-Khaza’leh Imam-edin Awad Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 42 50 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.198 School Leaders in Kazakhstan: Perspectives, Roles and Challenges <p>School leadership is back to fashion and became the major concern for many pieces of research. Expectations from schools and school leaders are changing along with time and society demands. Countries care about the future and its competitive capacity in a global arena, hence, one of the strategic directions is to invest in education. Moreover, current tendencies require reconsidering the activities of educational leaders at all levels. This paper aims at exploring the current situation of school leadership and school leaders in general and research the perspectives, roles, and challenges they face nowadays. The paper also considers international perspectives on school leadership as well as the context of Kazakhstan. The study discusses the variety of leadership roles and challenges the school leaders confront aiming at school development. The findings include the overview of school management systems and existing practices of school development in Kazakhstan. Nevertheless, there is a number of challenges in understanding the concept of school leader and the roles due to the lack of consistent research on effective practices. The paper reveals a number of inconsistencies in terms of the lack of differentiation between the roles, characteristics, and responsibilities of school leaders. The research provides recommendations on conducting larger-scale research to enable the complete picture of school leadership in Kazakhstan.</p> Dana Nurmukhanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 51 61 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.199 Investigation into Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance in Tertiary Institutions as Expressed by Undergraduates <p>The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. Two hundred (200) undergraduates were randomly selected from four (4) randomly selected universities in Osun state. A structured questionnaire entitled Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire (FASAPQ) which had four sections was developed and validated. Frequency counts, simple and percentage and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse the data collected. The findings of the study show that age had influence on students’ academic performance in tertiary institutions. The findings also revealed that the peer group had influence on students’ academic performance in tertiary institutions. The results also supported the idea that learning environment had influence on students’ academic performance in tertiary institutions. Furthermore, the difference in the students’ across institutions perception on factors affecting the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions was found insignificant (F<sub>(3,196) </sub>= 1.138, p&gt;0.05).Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: the school counsellors should be organizing orientation programmes for new undergraduates to get them familiar with the new environment and to understand the university.</p> Florence Adeoti Yusuf Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon Taiwo Rukayat Oladayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 62 75 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.200 Quality Evaluation of Postgraduate Programs from the Perspective of Students (Faculty of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), KSA) <p>This study is an attempt to determine the implementation level of quality standards in graduate programs at the college of Education, IAU in the light of the National Center for Academic Accreditation and Evaluation standards from the viewpoints of students. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of 86 graduate students. To achieve the study goals, respondents were requested to answer a five-point scale questionnaire comprised of 69 items related to eight quality standards. The result shows an average degree of overall implementation. At the standards level, findings revealed a higher average for implementing quality standards related to teaching staff and quality learning. On the other hand, lower averages of implementation were found for the quality standards of Scientific Research and Projects, Students, Learning Resources, Facilities and Equipment, Curricula, Mission and Goals, and Graduate Qualities and Learning Outcomes. A statistically significant difference (P&lt; 0.05) was found between males and females on the teaching staff standard favoring female students and non-significant differences were found on the implementation of quality standards according to their graduate specialization. The study concluded with recommendations directed for decision makers and higher administration to monitor the implementation of quality assurance within graduate programs.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mohammed Sarhan AL-Mekhlafi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 76 95 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.201 Influence of Digital Divide and Experience on Nigerian University Students’ Attitude Towards the Use of Information Communication Technologies for Learning <p>Recent studies have shown that factors influencing technology use include, but are not limited to, accessibility and availability. Several studies in developed countries revealed that digital division and experience significantly influence students’ attitude towards ICT utilization. However, there is lack of empirical evidence to show that such variables do influence ICT utilization by Nigerian students. This study examined the influence of digital divide and experience on Nigerian university students’ utilization of information communication technologies. Two research hypotheses were formulated for the study. A self-constructed and validated twenty-five- item instrument was used to gather information from one thousand and five hundred randomly selected respondents in three public universities in Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria, while t-test statistical method was used to analyze the data collected. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the perception of digital native and digital immigrant students in attitude towards ICT utilization (t = 3.25, p&lt;0.05). The findings of this study also showed that there is no significant difference in the perception of digitally experienced and less experienced students in attitude towards ICT utilization(t = 1.16, p&gt;0.05). Based on the findings, it was recommended that postgraduate students in Nigerian universities should be further encouraged not to allow age to influence their perception towards ICT utilization negatively. Also, Nigerian Government should subsidize the cost of ICT devices in order to make them affordable to all students.</p> Olori Abiola Lateef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 96 102 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.202 Perceived Influence of Family Planning Education on Maternal Health among Reproductive-Aged Women in Ijebu Zone of Ogun State Nigeria <p>The health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period is maternal health. This study examined the influence of family planning and maternal health education on reproductive-aged women’s health in Ijebu zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. The population of the study includes all reproductive-aged women who have accessed and used family planning and maternal health care services in Ijebu zone of Ogun State. This study was a descriptive survey. The instrument used was self-structured.&nbsp; Four health centres were randomly selected for the study, while 300 participants were purposively selected for the study. Chi-square (X2) was the main statistical tool used for the analysis. All hypotheses formulated were rejected at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings of this study show that the influence of family planning and maternal health care /education on reproductive-aged women’s health in Ijebu zone of Ogun state include lengthening the interval between pregnancies, reduce the number of high-risk pregnancies, promotes efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health services, and improve women’s lives and satisfaction with health services. Based on the findings of this study, it is therefore concluded that family planning and maternal health education will influence maternal mortality as well as promote maternal health and child care among married people in Ijebu zone of Ogun state if integrated. It is therefore recommended that maternal health education services should be carried out in the public through the media by both governmental and non-governmental organizations.&nbsp; Maternal healthcare and family planning should be integrated in the health centres.</p> Saidat Bola Adegbite Emmanuel Akinyemi Adenuga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 103 111 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.204 The Impact of Teaching English Polysemy through Similarity-Based Approach <p>This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of teaching polysemous nouns through an innovative method that the researcher calls Similarity-Based Approach (SBA) and to compare it to the translation-based vocabulary instruction method (TBM). The objective of the study is to show how guiding students’ comprehension of a polysemous word through semantic relations improves their understanding.&nbsp; At the same time, it is the aim of the study to demonstrate the effectiveness of Similarity-Based instruction by teaching vocabulary through showing semantic relation of word meaning to young learners compared to the old, traditional way of memorizing pairs of words. The experiment is conducted with two groups of elementary students with a pre-test, a lesson and a post-test. The results in the post-test revealed that through SBA students remember the vocabulary better than they do through the traditional method of memorization. SBA might represent a new method in teaching polysemous vocabulary to young learners, while TBM implies a traditional, well rooted way of teaching polysemous words in ESL classrooms.</p> Tinatin Vardidze ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 112 125 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.205 Mediating Effect of Leadership Outcomes on the Relationship between the Leadership Style of Leaders and Followers’ Administrative Creativity <p>This paper aims to identify and understand the mediating role of leadership outcomes (LOs) on the association that exists between leadership styles (LS) of leaders and their followers’ administrative creativity (AC) in Najran university. A random sampling technique was conducted which comprised of 342 administrative employees. SPSS tool was used and several statistical methods were involved in the data and statistical analysis including the maximum likelihood estimate. Finally, the structural model testing (SEM) was conducted using AMOS (Analysis of a Moment Structures) to test the proposed hypotheses of the study model. The results showed that leadership styles of managers have a positive relationship on followers’ leadership creativity. In addition, leadership outcomes of followers are positively mediating the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership of leaders and follower’s administrative creativity.</p> Wafa Mohammed Aldighrir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-23 2020-05-23 5 2 125 139 10.31578/jebs.v5i2.206