Journal of Education in Black Sea Region 2021-07-13T05:12:01+04:00 Mehmet Shahiner Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of the journal is to publish high-quality manuscripts that are of international (or at least regional) significance in terms of design and/or findings by encouraging the collaboration with international teams of researchers to create special issues on these topics. The journal strives to strengthen connections between research and practice, so enhancing professional development and improving practice within the field of education. Papers accepted for publication are double-blind refereed by international reviewers to ensure academic integrity.</p> <p>Journal of Education in Black Sea Region (JEBS) is a peer-reviewed international (regional) journal. Articles from / dealing with the Black Sea region countries are especially welcome, however, we cordially invite authors from all over the world.&nbsp;</p> JEBS Vol 6 No 2 (2021) Title and Content Page 2021-05-21T12:18:35+04:00 JEBS Editor <p>JEBS Vol 6 No 2 (2021) Title and Content Page</p> 2021-05-21T12:17:20+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Flute Education in Turkey in the Process of COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-07-13T05:11:58+04:00 Ajda Şenol Sakin <p>The experience of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide has caused education to be carried out through distance learning. Due to this situation, flute instructors faced many difficulties in instrument training, which had to be done remotely in professional music education institutions. A research was conducted to determine the training and examination processes of the instructors for flute education, their experiences, readiness for online education, negativities, and solutions during the pandemic process. Convergent parallel design, one of the mixed research methods, was used in the study. The study group consists of 22 flute instructors who work in different professional music education institutions in Turkey. An open- and close-ended questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. It was revealed that flute instructors conducted classes in different ways during the pandemic, they had to make their evaluations mostly individually, and they had many difficulties due to the internet and the applications used. As a result of the research in order for online flute training to be more effective, it was recommended that both instructor communication be more active and trainers receive training that will contribute to their professional development in online education.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Flute training, Turkey, COVID-19, pandemic, online education</p> 2021-05-21T00:00:00+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distance Education Service Quality in Turkey 2021-07-13T05:12:01+04:00 Başak Gök Hadi Gökçen <p>Universities occupy an important place in the training of qualified manpower needed by a country, in the production of knowledge and in service to the society with the educational services they provide. Due to the limited capacity and increasing demand in higher education, distance education (DE) programs in universities are spreading rapidly. In this study, the components affecting the service quality perception of the DE service offered and the score of the students, who are the most important customers of the DE program, were determined. Service quality was measured by DE-SERVQUAL, which has a 4-factor structure: "e-learning environment", "trust", "accessibility" and "enthusiasm". In the study where 457 valid answers were evaluated, students indicated that accessibility is the most important dimension that determines the DE service quality. It is followed by e-learning environment, reliability and enthusiasm in the descending order. In addition, students gave the lowest score to the e-learning environment dimension in the program they were enrolled in.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> service quality, distance education, DE-SERVQUAL, SERVQUAL</p> 2021-05-21T00:00:00+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching the Big Three: Making Sense of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Milton 2021-07-13T05:11:52+04:00 Edward R. Raupp <p>Arguably, the three most important early writers in the English language – indeed, one might say the founders of the language – are Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400), William Shakespeare (1564-1616), and John Milton (1608-1674).&nbsp; Yet our experience at the higher level of education is that students have had little exposure to the life and times of these writers or of their work.&nbsp; Our study shows that, while some Georgian school leavers have been exposed briefly to a bit of Shakespeare, few have chanced to encounter Chaucer and none to Milton.&nbsp; Moreover, while teaching what we might call “The Big Three” of English language and literature, much the same might be said at the master’s level: a bit of Shakespeare, little of Chaucer, and none of Milton.&nbsp; To the extent that students of English as a foreign language encounter any literature at all, they tend to be offered little other than literal translation.&nbsp; “Retell the text.”&nbsp; They miss the nuances of the English language as they would encounter them through the greatest of writers.&nbsp; It is, therefore, essential that those who teach any or all of these great writers develop a strategy to fit the needs of the students while meeting the objectives of the course.&nbsp; The key to making sense of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Milton is to make connections to what students already know, to their own experiences, to make these greatest of all English writers relevant to the lives of the students in ways they can understand.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> English literature, Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton</p> 2021-05-21T08:40:14+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effects of Culture on Learning Styles: The Sample of Ondokuz Mayıs University 2021-07-13T05:11:54+04:00 Fatih Diken Nevin Ozdemir <p>This study examines the effect of culture on learning styles. The study sample consisted of undergraduate and graduate students, most of whom are foreign nationals, studying in different departments of Ondokuz Mayıs University in Samsun, Turkey. Based on the experiential learning theory (ELT), Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (KLSI) was used as a data collection tool to define individual learning styles. By examining previous studies such as the Global Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness (GLOBE), the study focused on categorizing cultural differences. 193 participants from 35 different nationalities were included in one of three cultural clusters (The Middle East, Africa, and Central Asia). In the first part of the study, the dominant learning styles of each cultural cluster were evaluated based on Kolb's traditional 4 learning styles (diverging, converging, assimilating, and accommodating) and the new 9 learning styles (experiencing, imagining, reflecting, analysing, thinking, deciding, acting, balancing) defined in KLSI 3.2 and KLSI 4. It was analysed whether there was a statistically significant difference in the dominant learning styles among the cultural clusters. The results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference among the cultural clusters according to 4 learning style classifications, whereas there were significant differences among the cultural clusters according to Kolb’s 9 learning style classifications. In the second part of the study, it was evaluated whether there was a significant difference among the cultural clusters according to the modes of grasping experience – concrete experience (CE) and abstract conceptualization (AC) – and two dialectically related modes of transforming experience—reflective observation defined in the ELT model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> learning style, Kolb learning style inventory (KLSI), culture, cultural dimensions, cultural clusters, higher education</p> 2021-05-21T08:35:16+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenges and Solutions: The Experiences of Newly-Qualified Counsellors 2021-07-13T05:11:49+04:00 Yusuf FLORENCE ADEOTI Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon Imran Moshood Adesile <p>The emergence of the increases in the rate of different social vices among the adolescents in high schools calls for re-evaluation and updating of the existing operating counselling services in secondary schools' educational system. The study examined the challenges of the newly qualified school counsellors and the solution proffered. Six research questions were raised to guide the study. It adopted a mixed-method research approach. &nbsp;The results of the findings revealed that the lack of recognition of the role of counsellors in the school system was rated the highest among the challenges experienced by newly-qualified counsellors, non-referral of students who need to be sent to a counsellor by teachers was rated second. From the findings of the study of the awareness campaign on the importance of counselling through various media, the finding “more time should be allotted to practicum for counsellors in training” was the highest-rated as the solution to the challenges experienced by newly-qualified counsellors. The results obtained from the study also revealed that male counsellors might be experiencing different challenges from their female counterparts. The results of the study also show a significant difference in the challenges experienced by newly qualified counsellors based on school type. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the solution provided by newly qualified counsellors based on gender. The results also show that the solution provided by a counsellor from private schools does not differ from that of their public schools’ counterpart. Based on the findings of the study recommendations were made: government should provide public enlightenment programmes to parents, school administrators, teachers, and students through jingles, posters, billboards on the need to embrace counselling in the school system and make use of the facility. National University commission should revise the counsellor training programme and increase the period allocated for practicum for the counsellor in training in order to equip them for the tasks ahead.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> challenges, solutions, experiences, newly qualified counsellors</p> 2021-05-21T08:48:56+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Self-perceived Impact of COVID-19 Human Mobility Restrictions on Armenian Students Aged 14-18 2021-07-13T05:11:27+04:00 Garik Poghosyan <p>The present article showcases the self-perceived impacts of COVID-19-related human mobility restrictions on the Armenian youth aged 14 to 18. Rather than attempting to discuss policies or theories or concentrate on certain areas of the fabric of human society, such as human rights, economy, health care, this case study makes a bold attempt to illuminate the reader about the condition and self-perceived effects of the crisis on a specific age group in the context of COVID-restricted mobility and ensuing challenges (education, social life, including sports and extracurricular activities, emotional well-being) in a given country, something that has been prevailingly, if not completely, ignored even in those research projects that have addressed the COVID-19-related human mobility limitations for specific groups of people (migrants, the displaced, women, etc.). Thus, the author has attempted to lay the groundwork for further case studies as well as comparative research investigating the human mobility dimension of the COVID-19 crisis for adolescents or various age groups with an emphasis on the effects of reduced or restricted mobility on the intellectual, athletic, social or cultural life of those affected by them. Overall, the participants displayed the whole gamut of both negative and positive experiences and gave varied responses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>human mobility, COVID-19, students aged 14-18</p> 2021-05-21T11:04:01+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers' Views on Music Education Practices in Secondary Education in Distance Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic Process 2021-07-13T05:11:29+04:00 Gülnihal Gül <p>In this study, it was aimed to determine the views of music teachers who have worked in secondary education during the COVID-19 Pandemic process regarding the music lessons conducted via distance education. The study group of the research consisted of 11 music teachers who were determined by the convenience sampling method. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview consisting of 6 questions and a demographic information form. In line with the findings obtained from this study, it was determined that the music teachers participating in the research had difficulties in classroom management, parents' approaches, technological equipment, internet problems and students' motivation. Besides, it was determined that the teachers used different technological teaching materials in the course, the achievements in the curriculum were partially achieved and the course evaluation process could not be carried out effectively enough.</p> <p><strong>Key words:&nbsp;</strong> COVID-19, pandemic, distance education, secondary education, music education</p> 2021-05-21T11:02:44+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) (Differences Between Saudi Arabia and the USA) 2021-07-13T05:11:30+04:00 Jo Nell Wood Abdulmajeed K. Alshammari <p>Professional Learning Community (PLC) for teachers is one of the trending ways on improving students’ achievement. This article aims at investigating the implementation level of Professional Learning Community (PLC) in the schools of the United States of America and Saudi Arabia, as perceived by teachers. Also, the article evaluates whether there are significant differences on the implementation level based on country, gender, and years of experience. Participants of the study were public school teachers from both countries. To attain the purpose of the study, the descriptive approach was used. Using Means and Standard Deviation (SD), the findings reveal that the level of implementation of PLC in Saudi Arabia was higher compared to the USA. However, by using the T-test and ANOVA, it was revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the implementation level based on country, gender, and years of experience. Recommendations and suggestions were provided for implementation improvement and future studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Professional Learning Community (PLC), teachers’ professional development, school improvement</p> 2021-05-21T11:01:12+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Human Rights Education at School, Community and Individual Levels - Case Study of Georgia Research Essay 2021-07-13T05:11:32+04:00 Medea Gugeshashvili <p>Since its independence in 1991, the promotion of human rights has been a part of Georgia’s efforts towards the integration into Euro-Atlantic Institutions. However, difficulties in introducing the concept of individual, democratic and human rights are persistent in the teaching/learning process, as these concepts are still not organic and commonly understood in popular culture. Herewith, a growing level of political and societal polarisation between nationalistic and liberal forces impedes the process of effective promotion of universal human rights principles. The article analyzes the tensions between the core values of nationalism and liberal ideology in Georgia, as well as the supporting factors for the promotion of human rights education (HRE). It discusses the potential of HRE in mitigating the societal polarisation and reaching social cohesion around the basic civic values. A conclusion is made that, despite considerable progress achieved in promoting HRE in Georgia during the last decade, complexities remain related to the difficulty of introducing the concepts of individual, democratic and human rights in the teaching/learning process, as such concepts are still not organic and commonly understood in popular culture. Based on the best practices identified in various impact assessment studies on HRE worldwide, recommendations are offered for the schools to introduce transformative and emancipatory learning and make HRE effective through the application of the ‘wholeschool’ approach - an effective tool for bringing tangible changes to the school environment, as well as the impact on the household and community levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>human rights education, social cohesion, Georgia, impact of education, wholeschool approach, social cohesion</p> 2021-05-21T11:00:00+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of Soft Skills While Teaching English to Master’s Students 2021-07-13T05:11:34+04:00 Natela DOGHONADZE Marina Zoranyan <p>Besides the knowledge and skills directly related to the profession, the so-called soft or transferable skills are essential for future specialists in all areas. Soft skills involve communication, problem-solving, decision-making, computer, leadership, teamwork, critical and creative thinking, presentation, reflection and other skills, which help people to be employed and develop a successful career. To develop these skills while teaching English at University the following activities are useful: projects, presentations, discussions, debates, keeping portfolios, writing reflective diaries, role play and business games. A mixed paradigm was applied: quantitative research (self-assessment questionnaire survey) with 60 MA/MS students and, for triangulation, a focus group interview (a qualitative approach) with 6 of those respondents who volunteered to take part in it. The goal of the research was to find out whether activities supporting the development of soft skills were applied in MA/MS English classrooms and whether the respondent students realized their usefulness for their future careers. Two corresponding research questions were asked. The research held applied a researcher-made Likert-scale questionnaire and a focus group interview. The questionnaire was validated and piloted. The interview asked the same questions, trying to get students’ insight on the issue.&nbsp; A conclusion was made that presentations, discussions and debates, as well as role-play were often applied in their classes, while portfolios, diaries and business games were more or less applied and projects were almost not used. However, the students realized the importance of these activities for their future careers.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: soft skills, teaching English as a foreign/second language (EFL, ESL), activities, Master’s students</p> 2021-05-21T10:58:14+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Do Teachers’ Qualifications and Experience Influence Academic Performance of Students in Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria? 2021-07-13T05:11:35+04:00 Daniel Idowu Oludipe Bimbola Dupe Oludipe <p>This study investigated the influence of teachers’ qualifications and experience on students’ academic performance in basic science in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey type of research. Simple random sampling was used to select eight Junior Secondary Schools (J.S.S.) in the Ogun East senatorial district of Ogun State. It included 18basic science teachers and 540 junior secondary school students. The data were collected using a questionnaire and a basic science achievement test. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation. The findings of this study revealed that most of the basic science teachers at the J.S.S. level were not trained as basic science teachers; science teachers’ qualifications influenced students’ academic performance in basic science; basic science teachers’ years of teaching experience did not have a positive correlation with students’ academic performance in basic science.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Qualification, academic performance, problem-solving</p> 2021-05-21T10:56:25+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Drama Technique on Achievement in English Reading Comprehension of Junior Secondary School Students 2021-07-13T05:11:39+04:00 Oluseun F. Law <p>The study examined the effect of drama technique on achievement in English reading comprehension of junior secondary school students. This study adopted the pre-test – post-test quasi-experimental design. The population of the study comprised all junior secondary school students in Ijebu-North local government, Ogun state. Two junior secondary schools were randomly selected for the purpose of the study. The students in the two schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument used for data collection was the Reading Comprehension Achievement Test which has a reliability coefficient of 0.72. The experiment lasted for six weeks. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) at a 0.05 level of significance. The results show a significant main effect of drama technique and gender on students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The results further show a significant interaction effect of drama technique and gender on students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The study recommends that teachers should adopt the use of drama techniques in teaching comprehension.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>drama technique, reading comprehension, achievement in reading</p> 2021-05-21T10:55:03+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Family Socio-Economic Status, School Location and Students’ Eco-Friendly Knowledge, Attitude and Practices in Nigeria 2021-07-13T05:11:41+04:00 Ramoni Afolabi Olubela <p>The school system, regardless of the level of operation, is generally accepted as a major agent of education. It provides avenues for interaction between students and teachers on subject matters. However, the location of the school determines many students’ knowledge, attitude and practices.&nbsp; Also, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of the parents’ role in the progress and educational development of their children. Family background as an important and weighty factor in determining the academic performance attained by the student needs to be investigated. This study adopted a pre-test-post-test control group quasi-experimental design. Intact class of Junior Secondary School II Social Studies students in each of the six schools in Oyo state were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Three validated instruments were used in this study, and they are the Environmental Education Knowledge Test (EEKT), Environmental Education Attitude Scale (EEAS) and Environmental Education Practice Questionnaire (EEPQ). The data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with the pretest scores used as covariates. All the null hypotheses were tested at a P &lt; .05 level of significance. The study showed a significant two-way interaction effect of family socioeconomic status and school location on students’ eco-friendly knowledge, attitude and practices. It was recommended that schools should be kept safe and parents should develop more streams of income, as a single income source has become a great economic challenge in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>family socioeconomic status, school location, students’ eco-friendly knowledge, students’ eco-friendly attitude, students’ eco-friendly practices, school security, alternative income</p> 2021-05-21T10:53:25+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teacher Opinions and Perspectives of Visual Culture Theory and Material Culture Studies in Art Education 2021-07-13T05:11:43+04:00 Rasim Basak <p>Teacher opinions and discussions about Visual Culture Theory and Material Culture in art education are examined in this paper. Both approaches were compared and evaluated within their contents and fundamentals. Visual Culture Art Education (VCAE) in art education, specifically, has been criticized as having a <em>Neo-Marxist</em> or <em>Cultural Marxist</em> agenda stemming from <em>Critical Theory</em>, nonetheless, it is also viewed as being just another recent Postmodernist approach. Being a controversial theoretical account, VCAE seems widely unknown and not understood in its conceptual frame among art teachers in Turkey. Its name also may have caused confusion. In this study, art teacher opinions of VCAE content, principles, applications and practices were collected through a survey questionnaire; and examined. Participants were 71 art teachers. A purposeful, convenient, random sampling method was employed to represent a population of art teachers from various backgrounds, with various experience levels, with educational experience from various universities, working at various geographical regions and towns in Turkey. The study was designed and structured as descriptive survey research. Analyses revealed that art teachers usually are not aware of the typical discussions about VCAE. Having been criticized as an ideologically rooted theory, the applicability of VCAE in Turkey seems controversial in many aspects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>visual culture, Modernism, DBAE, VCAE, critical pedagogy, Postmodernism, neo-marxism</p> 2021-05-21T10:06:37+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diversity Management and Cultural Competency of Teacher Candidates in Blacksea Region of Turkey 2021-07-13T05:11:46+04:00 Tuba Aydın Güngör Çiğdem Çakır <p>Ever since the world has been dealing with the problem called Covid-19, everything around us has had to change. This epidemic has affected our lives in many ways and has set us completely new roles and tasks on many things, and education which is one of the most important things among them had been changed. Indeed, the transformation of education had already begun with the improvement of transportation and telecommunication conditions and being able to receive education online in different countries or via the internet has brought new concepts to the academic world. Cultural competence, one of them, is shaped by identity and traditions, thus cultural diversity is the main factor in determining the characteristics of this concept. Meanwhile, the ones who realize the acculturation of the society, the people who created this concept, are the teachers who direct the society in both academic and cultural dimensions. As a result, teachers need to learn to manage diversity to be able to cope with the differences in their classrooms, as they encounter many different cultural characteristics. For this reason, in this study, it is considered worth investigating what kind of dimensions pre-service teachers can have regarding the management of diversity and cultural competencies. The of the research consists of 1073 teacher candidates studying in Artvin Coruh University. The aim of this research was to reveal the diversity management skills and cultural competence levels of education faculty students. In order to reach more in-depth information on what management of diversity and cultural competencies is, the study started with a literature review. Then, Diversity Management Scale (DMS) and Cultural Competence Scale (CCS) were applied to Artvin Çoruh University, in the Black Sea region of Turkey, to faculty of education students (teacher candidates). After the regression analysis of the data for the management of diversity scale, two dimensions have been found which are managerial practices and managerial approaches. Moreover, for the cultural competencies scale, three dimensions were found which are cultural knowledge, cultural sensitivity, and cultural skills. Lastly, a significant relationship was found between Diversity Management and Cultural Competence of the teacher candidates, and cultural competence was found to be a meaningful predictor of diversity management of teacher candidates.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>diversity, culture, cultural competence, diversity management, teachers</p> 2021-05-21T10:04:32+04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##